Milk replacers for wildlife
Product texture introduces measurement error
Milk replacer powders have a variety of textures. The detailed analysis page for each powdered milk replacer product tested contains observations describing the texture of the powder and the relative ease or difficulty in measuring the product using a 1 tablespoon scoop (the large end of the PetAg red scoop). As shown below, the various products tested exhibited an increasing degree of variability (both plus and minus) based on the physical characteristics of the powder. These physical attributes included the relative size and granularity of the individual particles of the powder and the tendency of the individual particles to adhere to one another and clump together (stickiness).
The products at the bottom of the chart had a higher tendency to produce very consistent weights over multiple measurements, as they have a more fine and granular texture without much tendency to clump together. Conversely, the products at the top of the chart are much more coarse in texture and have a tendency for individual particles to clump, producing a much higher level of observed variability when measuring by volume (i.e., using a scoop).
The colors in the chart indicate two measures of variability. The blue indicates the degree of error that was observed approximately 2/3 of the time over repeated measurements (this is known as one standard deviation). The red indicates the maximum error (either high or low from the average) observed during the measurement trials.